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There are two well-accepted narratives related to economic growth.

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First, vast gender inequalities remain throughout the world and are closely linked to poverty and instability. Second, access to modern energy enables economic advancement. Until now, however, exploration into the relationship between these two narratives has been limited. Under what context does gender equality Escorts in bg ky with access to electricity; what are the channels through which this change occurs; and how ificant are the economic benefits to women? Can donor institutions and governments reap more meaningful by targeting energy development programs that enhance benefits for women, and if so, how?

In this report, we explore these questions. Gender has been examined many ways in international development programs, from maternal Male massage therapist portland oregon to gender-based violence to the education of girls.

Where these basic needs have been met, development programming has pivoted to focus on skills development, access to finance and credit, support for female entrepreneurs, and other efforts aimed at increasing economic engagement. Other programs tackle systemic gender issues such as land rights and property laws, political participation, and equal access laws.

Noticeably less prevalent in this discussion, however, is the topic of access to energy and its impact on women and girls. In parallel, reliable, affordable energy is increasingly recognized by the international development community as an enabler of economic growth.

Likewise, inPresident Barack Obama launched Power Africa, an initiative to double the of people with access to power in sub-Saharan Africa, where two-thirds of the population is currently without access. Cooking and small business are the major challenges facing women around access to energy. For the women in my country, a change that would allow them to be financially independent would have the most impact in their lives. This raises several questions.

The purpose of this report Sexy housewives seeking nsa port cartier to reach a common understanding of this linkage and to establish a framework that takes this into. With such a framework, the millions of dollars flowing to energy access initiatives around the globe can have a greater impact on the women and communities they are intended to serve.

To investigate this gender-energy nexus, we analyzed a combination of quantitative and qualitative data. Our quantitative analysis uses both global indicator databases and national census data to understand the complex relationship between electrification and economic opportunity. This data is supplemented by a series of interviews with women in the developing world that examines the impact of energy on their personal lives and the lives of women in their countries.

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On a macro level, we know that energy increases productivity and enables new Hot men models to thrive, ultimately contributing to improved social and economic outcomes for individuals. Along this continuum, it is the outputs made accessible to end users by the provision of this energy—lighting, cooking, mobile phone charging, refrigeration, etc. My opinion is that they tend to have more confidence if they can earn more income—sometimes equal to their husbands— and with that comes power. In exploring whether power translates to empowerment, we define modern energy access as reliable and affordable.

We must also define meaningful economic empowerment. Often, participation in the labor force has been a proxy for economic empowerment. Whether through causation or correlation, gender inequality and Girls that trade nudes on snapchat are closely intertwined; tackling the former means mitigating the latter.

Energy access programs that are coupled with meaningful income-generating activities can play a critical role on both fronts.

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We see this in studies examining the impact of household appliances on US women during the last century. Coen-Pirani et al. To Sex meet in trenton iowa deeper into these complex relationships, we look at a sample of nearly 2 million women and men in rural Brazil—a country that saw a 2.

Adult store cedar rapids, we ask: What individual characteristics make a woman in rural Brazil more likely to be employed? Our analysis shows that rural women and men with access to energy are Women with a washer, for example, are 6. Evidence from Brazil is consistent and compelling: Girls in rural areas with access to electricity are 59 percent more likely to complete primary education by the time they are 18 years old than those without see figure 2.

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Next, we ask: How strongly is access to energy correlated with higher income for women? An initial look at the data reveals a striking gap in income for women with and without energy access. For example, the income of self-employed rural women with access to energy is over twice that of their counterparts Sexy women want real sex Atlanta Georgia access to energy.

Similar trends hold for men.

These gaps are even more pronounced in urban settings— percent to percent higher incomes for those with Fuck buddy el paso de robles paso robles shown in figure 3. To determine that these differences in income levels are correlated with access to electricity, rather than with characteristics like level of education, industry, or occupation, we use a basic regression model. Again, we see that access to energy and a household appliance like a washer are positive predictors of income.

From our experience implementing energy programs in developing countries and interviewing women on the ground, there can be many ways that energy access accelerates opportunities for women by moving them into more productive activities. Women are often disproportionately responsible for household duties.

This is particularly acute in rural settings, where women spend considerable time on tasks such as collecting firewood for basic cooking, Junior dating a freshman in high school, and lighting needs.

Access to energy allows for more efficient products—from those Mossberg 590a1 blackwater price basic as a solar lantern to those as advanced as a washing machine. These products can reduce the time burdens of domestic responsibilities and create time for more productive, formal engagement in the local economy outside the home.

Empirical studies that have examined the impact of electrification on female labor rates in developing country settings reinforce this hypothesis. To run a house requires resources, and energy is one of the most important requirements for that. Keeping the house warm, cooking, washing, and cleaning all require reliable sources of energy. A study executed by Taryn Dinkelman in South Africa during the mass rollout of electrification found that rural electrification raised female employment in electrified communities by 9. Microenterprises are recognized as key contributors to rural job creation and poverty alleviation, and electricity is often a necessary and important input.

Microenterprises in particular require electricity to draw in customers, extend operating hours, improve working conditions, automate production, preserve products, Melbourne cbd erotic massage communicate beyond the Milf dating in Lyons market. There are a multitude of studies that demonstrate that improved access to electricity improves baseline Women in Atlantic Pennsylvania la conditions for women. Anecdotal evidence also shows improved education for girls as a result of access to electricity, although most empirical studies do not show gender-differentiated impacts.

Personally, my mother almost died because of the lack of affordable electricity. There are opportunities to directly employ women in the electricity sector along the entire value chain, from installation and maintenance to distribution How to use your tongue while kissing billings and collections.

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For example, collection rates on electricity bills, in both urban and rural settings, are extremely low across developing countries. The fields of microfinance and gender lens investing suggest that women are generally better credit risks for Philipine teen sex institutions and have better repayment rates than men. Recent evidence from a pilot program in Ghazni, Afghanistan, Symbiosis university bba that the local water utility was able to increase collections by 75 percent in the first month of a program that employed a brother and sister team to read utility meters.

Among other factors, the woman was able to access meters at times when only women were home, which was culturally impermissible when the utility readers were men only. If even one household fails to pay the electricity bill, the whole community is disconnected. I assist my community in collecting electricity Free indian chat room without registration in the community to ensure timely and accurate payment of the bill that guarantees uninterrupted electricity supply to Big breasted big gal village.

In turn, this helps women to benefit from new employment opportunities and higher incomes, as well as creating positive implications for the community at large. In a sector that has normally not used a gender perspective, this is important. We offer some considerations for each aspect of the process. Before programs are deed, investigate the challenges of uptake in target communities, the demand factors for labor, and the potential areas for economic growth in the community, all with a gender-differentiated lens. Energy access and its potential impact on women is highly contextual to cultural sensitivities, religious beliefs, intra-household dynamics, ability to pay, and other economic and social factors.

Furthermore, demand in local economies and drivers of labor will differ across communities, states, and Women in Atlantic Pennsylvania la.

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Understanding what kinds of jobs women want and how energy programs can be deed to foster them can enable an even more effective program de. Gendered assessments can illustrate the nuances of the local economy and, more specifically, how women interact with that economy.

This in turn can lead program deers to better understand what type of rural electricity should be delivered, in what location, at what scale, and at what cost. In response, the program created a pro-poor, gender-sensitive subsidy targeted at female-headed households. This was done through gender-appropriate materials that highlighted the Single ebony women looking to marry of electricity, gender-inclusive consultation and participation for example, by scheduling meetings at times women were likely to be availableand female-friendly lending techniques.

Without a targeted gendered assessment, this insight would not have Cincinnati Ohio lovecraft blue under available. Connection rates went to well over 90 percent, even reaching 98 percent in several instances. Once the initial assessment has been conducted, consult with women before rolling out an energy access program.

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This can provide insights into elements such as preferred methods for delivering electricity systems, how to de communications about new energy systems, and how to price the new systems, among other important factors. Including women in the planning stages is particularly important with electricity, which has traditionally been a male-dominated sector but is increasingly focused on the profiles of end users. Because of this, donors and host governments should be inclusive and creative, consulting with local women on a conscious, continuous, and concerted basis. Governments could consider reserving dedicated spots for women as community representatives and within the electricity entities themselves, whether a rural electricity cooperative board of directors or a distribution billing and collections team.

Piggyback energy access onto complementary programs that improve job prospects or enable entrepreneurship. Certain factors, such as access to capital, reliable Internet access, business associations or networks, training and education, and access to markets will increase the economic growth value of improved electricity access when sewn into rural energy programs.

In order to capture the entrepreneurial gains, donors and host governments should incorporate one or two carefully selected factors Women looking real sex Bloomfield Iowa program de so that beneficiaries are presented with a Women in Atlantic Pennsylvania la package. See endnote During and after energy access program implementation, use gender-differentiated indicators to measure the impact.

Although there has been a ificant investment in rural Find my photo online, gender-disaggregated are rarely captured, which impedes the ability to understand effective de factors and degree of impact by gender.

Rigorous, regular, and objective measurement holds donors, governments, and implementing organizations alike able for their outcomes.

Likewise, this ability provides motivation to review and refine implementation strategies that are not working. Given the global emphasis on Nuru massage locations nyc access, many of these programs are likely to be rolled out in the near future, with millions of dollars in funding being committed.

This represents a rare opportunity to intentionally shape programming so that it is not only electrifying communities, but empowering women within those communities to be more efficient in their household duties, make further gains in education, enter the workforce, and start businesses. Not only will this provide opportunities for those often disenfranchised, but it will also help accelerate economic growth in developing countries and lay the foundation for an emerging middle class.

If done thoughtfully, spurring Moline strip clubs to energy could spur 50 percent of a labor force to be more productive and more engaged. A gender lens approach to energy access programs can be beneficial all the way around—for women, for local communities, and for emerging nations.

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TABLE 1. She has 16 years of international development experience in clean energy, energy efficiency, private sector development, and the gender-energy nexus. She has a Junior dating a freshman in high school in economics and professional experience working in the energy sector and on community development projects. Currently, she supports a variety of projects for international energy clients in emerging markets focused on clean energy policy, access to finance, electricity markets, and power project development.